THE PREVIOUS THREE CHAPTERS have been about Jesus, especially about the lordship of Jesus. But more needs to be said about the Holy Spirit. In the long history of Christianity, there has been the tendency for far more to be thought and said about the Creator God and about Jesus Christ than about the Holy Spirit. Yet, in the creeds of the Church from A.D. 381 to the present, the divinity of the Spirit has been duly acknowledged.
One of the greatest needs of most contemporary Christians, at least most Christians outside of the Pentecostal tradition, is for a better understanding of and emphasis on the Holy Spirit. My concern is not just that Christian believers have a correct theology of the Trinity, but that they experience the gifts of the Spirit, exhibit the fruits of the Spirit, and become aware of how they embody the Spirit. Moreover, those who are not, or no longer, Christians need to have a better understanding of the Holy Spirit in order to understand Christianity more fully.
It is particularly the idea of embodying the Spirit that I focus on in this chapter. The Holy Spirit is not just an external power existing far from human beings and largely unrelated to them. Far from it. If people come to understand how the Spirit can live, and does, in fact, live within them, they can experience the Spirit as ever present, ever helpful, and ever empowering.
In writing to the Christians in Rome, Paul told them clearly that the Spirit of God dwelled in them (see 8:9), and then in his first letter to the church in Corinth, Paul declared that their bodies were temples of the Holy Spirit who was within them (see 6:19). The constant, internal presence of the Spirit within the lives of believers seems to be a clear teaching of the Bible, so it is worrying, indeed, that according to a poll taken in April 2009, “most Christians in the United States do not believe that the Holy Spirit is a living force. Fifty-eight percent strongly or somewhat agreed with the statement that the Holy Spirit is ‘a symbol of God’s power or presence but is not a living entity.’” And, no doubt, those percentages have gone down since that poll was taken.
It is unfortunate that so many Christians do not realize that the Holy Spirit, as a real, living power and “Person,” is actually with them always. And it is sad that so many Christian believers who give assent to the presence of the Spirit don’t really take advantage of that power. And the Spirit is also present in and around those who are not Christian believers. So one thing that everyone needs to know now is that the Holy Spirit is actually with and within them—whether they realize it or not.
The Holy Spirit as the Resurrected Jesus
The relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus Christ is difficult to grasp. Some seem to think that the Holy Spirit came into existence only after the death and resurrection of Jesus and is primarily the post-resurrection presence of Christ.
Certainly, the Holy Spirit cannot be limited to that understanding. As I emphasized in the third chapter, the Holy Spirit was active in God’s creation from the beginning and is the eternal part of the Trinity. Moreover, it was the Spirit who was instrumental in the (virgin) birth of Jesus, and it was the Spirit who empowered Jesus from the time of his baptism.
Having said that, it is also important to recognize that it is in the “form” of the Holy Spirit that Jesus’ presence is with Christian believers—and also with non-Christians. The presence of the resurrected Jesus and the presence of the Holy Spirit are often conflated, even in the New Testament.
Consider Jesus’ promise to the disciples after his resurrection and just before his ascension: “I am with you always” (Matthew 28:20). Obviously, it was not a physical, bodily presence he was talking about. And through the centuries, perhaps particularly in the last couple of centuries, Christians have talked about having Jesus in their heart. Another of the Gospel songs that we often sang in my boyhood and in the early years of my ministry was “Let Jesus Come into Your Heart.” And at the time of writing, a website advertises “I Have Jesus In My Heart” stickers.
Such talk, of course, can be traced back to the New Testament itself. On one occasion the Apostle Paul wrote, “I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me” (Galatians 2:19b-20a). But in another of his letters, Paul declares that “the Lord is the Spirit.”
The close relationship between Jesus and the Holy Spirit is seen in other New Testament passages. For example, in Philippians 1:19 Paul makes reference to “the Spirit of Jesus Christ,” and Acts 16:7 similarly refers to “the Spirit of Jesus.” Moreover, in writing to the Christians in Rome, Paul declared to them: “the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him” (Romans 8:9).
The Holy Spirit and Guidance
One of the most important popular religious books of the nineteenth century was In His Steps: What Would Jesus Do? written by Charles M. Sheldon and first published in 1896. In the 1990s, WWJC (the initials for “what would Jesus do?”) became quite popular in some circles, and there is now (in 2018) a What would Jesus do? app (see here).
Sheldon’s novel was a powerful one and his message quite significant. I don’t mean to criticize those who in recent years have found the WWJD emphasis meaningful, but it is more important for people to ask themselves WWHSHMD than WWJD, that is, What would the Holy Spirit have me do? rather than What would Jesus do?
It is very difficult to assess what Jesus would do if he were here at the present time. Sure, asking WWJD gives some good and important guidelines about many actions, but still, the details are often problematic. Of course, asking what the Holy Spirit would have one do doesn’t yield quick and easy answers either. The need for discernment is always present. But there is more likelihood that people will act correctly if they ask for, and then seek to follow, the guidance of the Holy Spirit rather than trying to guess what Jesus would do if he were here in their place.
Guidance is one of the main functions of the Holy Spirit for individual Christian believers. But care must be given here: it is easy to be mistaken, easy to describe following selfish desires as being led by the Spirit, easy to fall into the error of false certainty. Again, the need for discernment is always present. Still, if the New Testament is taken seriously at all, the guidance of the Holy Spirit is evident throughout its pages.
In the sixteenth chapter of John, Jesus told his disciples that when “the Spirit of truth” came, the Spirit would guide them into “all the truth” (v. 13). And truth, in John, is more a way of acting than it is a way of thinking. Similarly, the Apostle Paul wrote about the guidance of the Spirit: he averred that “all who are led by the Spirit of God are children of God” (Romans 8:14). And the reverse is also true, at least potentially so: all who are children of God are led by the Spirit.
The Holy Spirit and Empowerment
One of the most significant missionary passages in the New Testament is Acts 1:8. Those words, which give an outline of the content of the book of Acts, speak about the centrifugal force of the Gospel. But it needs to be clearly recognized that the expansion of the Gospel from Jerusalem to Judea and Samaria and then to the ends of the earth was predicated on the receiving power through the coming of the Holy Spirit.
When the Holy Spirit came upon the early church, as promised in Acts 1:8 and described in Acts 2, straightaway Peter was empowered to preach a sermon, the result of which was that three thousand people believed in Jesus, were baptized, and were added to the church. The subsequent growth of that early Christian community was due primarily to their being empowered by the Spirit. By Acts 4:4, the number of believers was said to be five thousand.
Throughout these early months and years in Jerusalem, the apostles and others in the church spoke and acted with great power, and that power was from the Holy Spirit. Thus, as has often been pointed out, the title of the fifth book of the New Testament probably should be The Acts of the Holy Spirit rather than the Acts of the Apostles. The outstanding acts of the Apostles were possible only because of the power of the Spirit.
To varying degrees, Christians through the centuries have lived and acted by the Spirit’s power. About a century ago, Charles H. Gabriel wrote a hymn called “Pentecostal Power.” The words of the refrain go like this:
Lord, send the old-time power, the Pentecostal power!
Thy floodgates of blessing, on us throw open wide!
Lord, send the old-time power, the Pentecostal power!
That sinners be converted and Thy Name glorified!
That hymn writer may or may not have known about the new movement that had just begun, one which placed great emphasis on the Pentecostal power about when he had written. In Los Angeles, California, a powerful movement of the Holy Spirit was being experienced on Azusa Street. That was the beginning of what has been called the Pentecostal movement, and it has developed into one of the most vibrant branches of Christianity, not only in the United States but especially in South America and Africa.
In 2006, the one-hundredth anniversary of the beginning of the Pentecostal movement, it was estimated that worldwide there were about 500 million adherents of Pentecostalism, comprising about one-fourth of all Christians. This is quite remarkable, considering that the Catholic Church claims to be nearly two thousand years old and the Protestant movement is now five hundred years old. Moreover, the largest Christian congregations in the world are Pentecostal churches, the largest being Yoido Full Gospel Church in Seoul, Korea. There are also huge Pentecostal megachurches in Chile, Indonesia, and Nigeria as well as in other African countries.
There are pesky problems with some aspects of the Pentecostal movement, though, and those negative matters need to be acknowledged. One major problem is that many of the Pentecostal churches are linked to what is often called the prosperity gospel, emphasizing what is sometimes described as “name it, claim it” or “confess it, possess it” mentality.
While emphasizing the very important concept that the Holy Spirit is always with everyone whether they realize it or not, and that everyone should become more aware of that fact in order to receive guidance and power from the Spirit, care must be taken so as not to fall into the error of thinking that people can “use” the Holy Spirit for their own personal benefit.
The Holy Spirit and Mission
If the Holy Spirit is with Christians, to guide us and empower them, then what is such guidance and empowerment for? It is important to realize that the primary purpose of the Holy Spirit’s presence with Christian believers is mission or service.
As mentioned at the beginning of the previous subdivision, Acts 1:8 clearly links the Spirit to the centrifugal expansion of the early church. It has been pointed out that the initial, and maybe the ongoing, missionary movement of the church was due far more to the inner compulsion of the Holy Spirit than to the external command of Jesus (in the “great commission” of Matthew 28:19-20).
There are certainly personal blessings or “benefits” to be received when one is open to the work of the Holy Spirit in his or her life, and those should not be minimized. But neither should they be over-emphasized. As noted in an earlier chapter, God is interested in more than the personal happiness of those who believe in God. God is primarily concerned with the needs of the entire world, and those who believe in God are expected to work with God by the power of the Holy Spirit to work for the expansion of the kingdom of God.
The work of the Holy Spirit is seen not primarily when worshippers ecstatically pray in tongues, but rather when sincere Christians use their voice to share the good news of the Gospel. The work of the Holy Spirit is seen not primarily when individual believers receive personal blessings, but when those believers are empowered to serve those in the world, both those near at hand and those in the far parts of the earth, who have great physical and spiritual needs.
The many gifts of the Spirit, those described in 1 Corinthians 12, are not for personal benefit. They are gifts for the sake of the body of believers and for the sake of the world at large. Like in several other manifestations of Western Christianity, there has been especially within the Pentecostal movement a proclivity to individualism. (And, unfortunately, that emphasis has spread from the U.S. to other parts of the world in recent decades.) But, again, it needs to be realized that God’s primary concern is with the whole, not just the part; that is, with the whole body of Christ, the church, and not just the individual members. And what is more, God’s concern is with the whole human race, not just some privileged groups, and with the whole world, not just human beings.
Yes, Christians need to know and to affirm that God’s Spirit is always with them whether they realize it or not. And they need to know that so that they can be more often and more fully led and empowered by the Spirit—for the sake of others and for the Kingdom of God.
 Lelia Naylor Morris (1862-1929) wrote the words of this Gospel song in 1898 at a camp meeting in Maryland.
 The ad for the 100 stickers for $1.99 came with these promotional words: “Tell your friends ‘I Have Jesus In My Heart’ with these fun heart-shaped stickers! Add a sticker to each valentine you hand out.”
 2 Corinthians 3:17. As there is a reference to Christ in verse 15, it seems clear that Lord here refers to Jesus Christ.
 More than 30,000,000 copies of In His Steps have been sold, making it one of the bestselling books of all time.
 The words and music for this hymn were written by Charles H. Gabriel (1856-1932) in 1912.
 The Azusa Street Revival, led by William J. Seymour, began with a meeting on April 14, 1906, and continued until 1915.
 The same source (http://pewresearch.org/pubs/218/a-pentecostal-primer) tells how only thirty years before, the adherents of Pentecostalism were comprised of only six percent of the world’s Christians; the growth from six percent to around twenty-five percent in only thirty years is remarkable, indeed.
 In the U.S., this emphasis has been, and continues to be, seen in the ministry of such well-known radio and televangelists as Kenneth Hagin (1917-2003), father of the Word of Faith movement; Oral Roberts (1918-2009); Kenneth Copeland (b. 1936), and Joel Osteen (b. 1963), pastor of Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas, by far the largest congregation in the U.S.
 This is the important point made by Harry R. Boer in his book Pentecost and Missions (1961, 1979). That seminal book remains the authoritative work on the subject.